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Handbook of the Montenegrin Army (1909)

Handbook of the Montenegrin Army (1909)

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Prepared by the
General Staff, War Office

WAR OFFICE, London, December 1909


A very rare, original, WW1 era British War Office Handbook of the Montenegrin Army, published in December 1909. Produced at a time of great turmoil in the Balkans - the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, the events leading up to the outbreak of WW1, and the assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 - this handbook would have been very useful to those members of the British government and military forces planning for war in the years leading up to 1914. Subjects covered include: history, government and population of Montenegro, composition of the army, conditions of service, training, general organization, supreme command, Ministry of War, infantry, armament, ammunition, cavalry, scouts, artillery, pioneers, medical services, officers, NCOs, badges of rank, uniforms, and fortifications. The handbook includes a large fold-ot War Office map of Montenegro.

Montenegro is a on the Adriatic coast of the Balkans. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovinia to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, Albania  to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and Croatia to the west. The capital city Podgorica covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population, while Cetinje  has the status of old royal capital. The name Montenegro was first used to refer to the country in the late 15th century. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained its independence in 1696, first as a theocracy and later as a secular principality. Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1910, the country became a Kingdom. As a result of the Balkan Wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost most of their Balkan lands), a common border with Serbia was established. Montenegro became one of the Allied Powers during WW1. The Montenegrin Army had a total of about 40,000 men in 1914. As Montenegro had been fighting to maintain its independence from Turkey for many years, its soldiers were experienced guerrilla fighters. In the Battle of Mojkovac, fought in January 1916 between Austria-Hungary and the Kingdom of Montenegro, the Montenegrins achieved a decisive victory despite being outnumbered five to one. But by the end of January 1916 the Austrians had defeated the Montenegrin Army, forced its surrender and withdrawal from the war, and occupied the capital. From 1916 to October 1918 Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux. After WW1, Montenegro became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together proclaimed a federation. Following an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared its independence and the confederation peacefully dissolved.


In very good condition. The boards are in very good condition. Thehinges and binding are very good and secure. The text and map are in very good condition.

Published: 1909
Red boards with gilt titling
Dimensions: 110mm x 160mm
Pages: 38 (plus fold-out map)